Energy Socio-Economics Research
Drastic Improvement Measures of Energy Efficiency Incorporating Production,
Consumption and Waste Cycle
(Institute of Economic Research) Seiji Ikkatai
Implementation plan in FY2008
Preliminary study of the drastic improvement measures of energy efficiency that included the cycle of production, consumption and waste was conducted.
For a preliminary study in the start year, the Institute of Energy Economics, Japan was requested to summarize the following three fi elds as “An Investigation Related to the Possibility of Drastic Improvement of Resource and Energy Efficiency”:
1) organization of the existing investigative researches on the concept of drastic energy effi ciency improvement,
2) case studies on the existing investigative researches on the possibility of the drastic improvement of energy effi ciency through the cycle of production, consumption and waste
3) case studies on “Effi ciency Improvement Barriers and its Remedies”.
 Organizing the existing investigative researches on the concept of drastic energy effi ciency improvement
In this section, the following publications were identifi ed as references that compiled existing researches, and while organizing these summaries, the evaluation was tried from the viewpoint of energy effi ciency improvement possibility concept.
1) “The First Global Revolution” (Roma Club Report), Alexander King, Bertrand Schneider, Hiroshi Tasogawa (Translator), Asahi Shimbun Publications, 1992 Publication,
2) “Factor 10” (Realizing Ecology Revolution) F. Schmidt-Bleek, Ken Sasaki (Translator), Springer Verlag Tokyo Co., Ltd., 1997 Publication,
3) “Factor 4” (Doubled the Prosperity, Halved the Consumption), Ernst Ulrich von Weizsäcker, Amory B. Lovins, and L. Hunter Lovins, Ken Sasaki (Translator), Energy Conservation Center, Japan, 1998 Publication,
4) “Natural Capitalism”, Paul Hawken, Amory Lovins, Hunter Lovins, Takamitsu Sawa (Translator), Nihon Keizai Shinbun Co., 1999 Publication
5) “Japan Low Carbon Society Scenario” Shuzo Nishioka (Editor), Nikkan Kogyo Shinbun Co., 2008 Publication.
Additionally, while referring to these authors, the research progress status up until now on
1) Internal and external environmental accounting system,
2) Lifestyle and energy utilization effi ciency,
3) Emphasis on end use approach were compiled.
 Case studies on the existing investigative researches on the possibility of the drastic improvement of energy effi ciency through the cycle of production, consumption and waste
In this section, case study on researches involved in the method of energy efficiency improvement and alternative method comparison related to various human activities such as transportation, food supply, lighting and hot water supply, and services were conducted. Specifi cally, summaries on methods such as 1) Eco Rucksack,
2) Food mileage,
3) Wood mileage,
4) Ecological footprint,
were compiled and the methods and indicators were studied in order to grasp the improvement of resources and energy efficiency. Additionally, concerning the substantial decrease of greenhouse effect gas to handle the climate changes problem, the concept and calculation methods of the “Carbon Productivity” presented by McKinsey & Co., in June 2008 were identifi ed, including analysis from the cost aspect on the signifi cant rise of the energy productivity. Furthermore, existing research summary on energy consumption comparison between each type of alternate behavior in daily life, such as“ how to dry hands”,“ to fax or to mail”,“ microwave or gas stove”, “how to boil water”, and“ e-mail energy consumption”, were compiled.
 Case Studies on “Effi ciency Improvement Barriers and its Remedies”
In this section, “Negawatt” (Next Generation Energy Born from a Switch in the Way of Thinking), Peter Hennicke, Dieter Sifried, Park Seung-Joon (Translator), Energy Conservation Center, Japan, 2001 Publication was referred to, and introduced examples where the minimum cost plan was not endorsed because the people way of thinking is hard to change regardless of the fact that there are examples showing that the cost required to conserve energy is lower than the cost for assuring the supply increase, and from that experience, showed the conditions for realizing the“ Effi ciency Revolution”. Additionally, the concept on“ Supply Curve”, a method where new energy is evaluated on the same scene was applied to energy saving technology. Furthermore, by referring to the“ Learning Curve”, a method where the possibility of reducing the cost by mass production is studied, it has shown the possibilities for technologies considered as high cost and not feasible to be applicable by introducing measures, such as in the example of solar battery learning curve where the cost is reduced to 82% when the cumulative production capacity is doubled. In addition, concerning the popularity of the bulb-type fluorescent lamp said to be economically proven, along with organizing the technical problems faced at its beginning, its solution status and its popularity status afterward were compiled. Furthermore, the study on solar water heater popularity holdup and the study on hybrid car popularity and its evolved form of plug-in hybrid car was shown.